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          [金豆登录]Mythologies and legends

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          Chapt金豆登录er 金豆登录I  Eur金豆登录opean Ancient Literature(Part II)

          II. Mythologies and legends

           Intoduction

             One of the greatest achievements of Greek literature is mythologies an金豆登录d legends. Greek mythologies and legends were not handed down in written form at first. They were just handed down orally and had been widespread among the people from mouth to mouth before they were written down. These mythologies and legends are scattered or recorded in the Homeric epics and Hesiodos’ Pedigree of Gods and other ancient Greek documents. In fact, when these mythologies and legends spread among different city-states, there was no written language in Greece. Greek mythologies in book form we read today are edited and revised by the scholars according to the documents mentioned above.

                                                           (Three graces)

                 The Greek mythology is the best-preserved and the most beautiful mythology in the world. It is the representation of Greek thought, ideas, and mind. As we know Greek culture is the important fountain of European literature, so if we want to have good understanding of European literature and culture, we should know the Greek mythology well.

          1.The origin of mythologies

          The Greek mythology is the product of mankind in his childhood. When people were in their primitive and clannish state, productivity was low and their knowledge about the nature was very limited. In such a context, they of course couldn’t understand the nature scientifically, so fancies, imaginations or illusions occurred in their mind. They could not tell why the sun rose in the east every day and set in the west; they could not tell why there were thunder and lightening; they could not tell why there was the shift of seasons; they could not tell why a man should fall in love with a woman. Many natural and social phenomena they could not understand. So they tried to explain these through their imagination. It is in such context that mythologies came into being. Accordingly, they associated thunder with Zeus, associated the sun with Apollo, and associated death with Hades. On one hand we may say these people are very naive and innocent, but on the other we have to think that they are very lovely, for they could think so beautifully.

          2.The story of the beginning of the heavens and earth and the gods on Olympus

          2-1. The beginning of the heavens and the earth

          Earliest gods

          Chaos(卡俄斯)――→Gaea(该亚)

          Gaea(该亚)――→Uranus(乌拉诺斯)

          Gaea(该亚)+Uranus(乌拉诺斯)――→Titans(Cronos克洛诺斯, Rhea瑞亚)

          Cronos(克洛诺斯)+Rhea(瑞亚)――→Zeus, Hera, Demeter, etc.

          Gods on Olympus

           

          中文译名 职能     希腊名     罗马名             谱系

           

          宙斯     天神    Zeus    Jupiter(朱庇特) 克洛诺斯与瑞亚之子

           

          赫拉     天后    Hera    Juno(朱诺)      克洛诺斯与瑞亚之女

           

          得墨忒耳  谷物女神, Demeter, Ceres(刻瑞斯), 克洛诺斯与瑞亚之女

           

          哈得斯    冥王, Hades, Pluto(普路同), 克洛诺斯与瑞亚之子

           

          波塞冬    海神, Poseidon, Neptune(尼普顿) 克洛诺斯与瑞亚之子

           

          阿瑞斯    战神, Ares Mars(玛斯) 克洛诺斯与瑞亚之子

           

          雅典娜   智慧女, 女战神, Athena, Minerva(密涅瓦) 宙斯和墨提斯之女

           

          阿波罗   太阳神,   Apollo, Apollo 宙斯和勒托之子

           

          阿耳忒弥斯 月亮女神, Artemis, Diana(狄安娜) 阿波罗的孪生姐妹

           

          阿佛洛狄忒 爱与美之女神, Aphrodite, Venus(维娜斯) 海中泡沫生出

           

          赫淮斯托斯 火神 Hephaestus Vulcan(伏尔甘) 宙斯与赫拉之子

           

          赫耳墨斯 商业神;众神之使者, Hermes, Mercury(墨丘利) 宙斯与迈亚之子

           原为列表  ,但这里不好操作  ,就将就着看吧.

           

          Legends of heroes

          The Greek mythology includes two parts, one is the story of gods the other is legends of the heroes. Legend of heroes is a kind of reminiscences of ancient history, social life and people’s struggle against the nature.

          3. Significance and characteristics of Greek mythologies and legends

          Firstly, the Greek mythology is the reflection of primitive society in different historical periods.

          Secondly, the Greek mythology is the representation of the Ancient Greeks’ opinion of life and nature. (Demeter and Persephone).

          Thirdly, the Greek mythology represents the Greeks ‘ desire of conquering the nature.

          4. Influence

          The Greek mythology has always been looked as a golden mine or treasure for western literature and art. Author and artist obtain themes and expressing model from it. People even named the nine planets in the solar system according to the names of the gods or goddesses. This is the influence upon astronomy.

          九大行星与神话(神话与天文)

          序号(按离太阳由近而远) 行星 西文 与神话之关系

           

          水星 Mercury 墨丘利;罗马商业神

           

          金星 Venus 维纳斯;罗马爱神

           

          地球 Earth

           

          火星 Mars 玛斯;罗马火神

           

          木星 Jupiter 朱庇特;罗马天神

           

          土星 Saturn 萨图恩;罗马农神

           

          天王星 Uranus 乌拉诺斯;希腊天神

           

          海王星 Neptune 尼普顿;罗马海神

           

          冥王星 Pluto 普路同;罗马冥王

           原为列表  ,但这里不好操作  ,就将就着看吧.

          加载中  ,请稍候......